The story of terrorism is not an old phenomenon, but in new era 21 century after 9/11 it became more complex and more variant. Pakistan is facing this biggest violence and most threaten duration still now after all effort .terrorism hit Pakistan from all angle economically, politically, military through target killing and bomb blast by brain washing the simplest and uneducated people. But it somehow in under control as took some important positive measurements after APS attacked and proper use of the laws, rules and regulations.
My topic is concern with the role of government, law enforcing agencies, especially judiciary and also focus on new constitutions like national plan act, military courts by amending army act and anti terrorism act. Also focus on about the reforms in their ruler and regulation against terrorism. According to an estimate terrorist attacked in Pakistan after 11 September 2oo1 most destructive and famous attacked by terrorist on American world trade center, after this the rate of terrorism reached at extreme stage.
According to study the rate of bomb blast, target killing, kidnapping moves with high speed in the direction of peak till 16 December 2014. But after Peshawar attacked on army public school many innocent ,little, with smiling face in the age of just 5 ,6 years of play group students and also the younger, talented, intelligent, the future of Pakistan make targeted snatched their lives, it was unbearable seen for all. It day was black day for Pakistan, this day make Pakistan compel to take serious steps against terrorism and took.
There is somehow seeing well. On applying new rules and regulations, the result of correct ways of implementation against terrorism gave reforms, like instead of make terrorist free they started to direct hang. This paper describes the changing phenomenon of terrorism after 9/11 and also about the role of government, laws enforcing agencies, role of judiciary in anti-terrorism to eradicate terrorism. Why it is not success still now in Pakistan, and how the rate of terrorism fall from peak some how and why. But not completely successful in doing so.
Terrorism is one of the biggest problems of Pakistan since 9/11. It caused large scale killings, economic instability and destruction of infrastructure in Pakistan. The topic is concern with the anti-terrorism law and its implication in Pakistan in twenty first century. Terrorism is not an old phenomenon for Pakistan, but after 9/11 attacks it became more complex and more variant, Pakistan facing new challenging age still now. The number of terrorism reached at peak the most famous attack in United States of America. As Pakistan was already entangled with the US and Taliban in Afghanistan. There are most important reasons behind the terrorism inside Pakistan.
Before attacked on American world trade center Pakistan was fully supporting to terrorist groups in name of mujahidin. But after 9/11 US started war and terror in Afganitan. The decision of US War on Terror compelled Musharraf to joined it, the decision was good at a that time because Pakistan is much weaker than the US politically, militarily and economically as compared to America, also America gave threat to Pakistan in case if Pakistan support to Taliban instead of America it push at stone age. Hence all that reasons Pakistan taken decision to go with America, but the effect of this decision remain long time and also destructing at large scale. it makes most threatened, most violent, thousands of people became victim of it, lot of them battered, people lost their properties, became homeless and jobless. it carry poor people toward poverty. Poverty compelling poorer people to go in direction of evil works. Poverty make people uneducated, it abolish awareness about which things is good or bad for them, on the other hand it increases illiteracy rate in society. Basic thing is education which gives awareness among people .awareness of unity, awareness of their basic right, awareness of what’s their responsibility in society? awareness of what is purpose of education? Awareness of making policy against terrorism, making organization constitution, law of enforcement and their reforms in these constitutions. And the most important thing is unity, unity is power, which bring people close to each other and give strong society ,a strong society can bring progress and prosperity. it can fight against evils like terrorist group ,to reduce in terrorism. It restrain those people who want to apply their own wrong rule and regulation on society and force them to follow their own ways either it is wrong or correct. They brain wash the uneducated people easily mostly of most of them belong to villages, their need to be development bring education and give awareness. Hence it is the responsibility of central organizations , constitution and others main heart of government of Pakistan which can make policy and implement the policy ,bring reforms in policy making constituent, in their implementing decision .the most important reason is that arrested terrorist make free and allow them to join in society again as like common citizenship shows the 1 weakness of our government there is need to be reforms in constitutions…after APS attacked in Peshawar government of Pakistan created new constitution National action plan, military court but amending army act and anti terrorism act ATA, and also implement their new 1 Mleeha Lodhi, “New challenges, new responses: Reflections on decision to reduced terrorism. In result the rate of terrorism moving declination as compared to during the year of 2009 to 2013 it reached at peak thousands of people victim and lot of them become injured for always .but somehow controlled now as compared to before APS attached.
Main argument Therefore, it is obligatory on Government, law enforcing agencies and judiciary to take effective measures against terrorists. Judiciary is one of the pillars of state. It has very important role in success of any policy of Government. In counter terrorism policy, judiciary has heavy responsibility to trial terrorists in order to reduce terrorism in Pakistan. it has been sixteen years fighting against terrorism until 2014 the country could not successful in this war completely but somehow controlled on it after APS attacked, a paradigm shift can be seen in the terrorist attacks after the game changer event of the Army Public School attack on 16 December 2014. Only 9 terrorist attacks can be seen in Pakistan up until the first anniversary of the APS attack. The reason behind is the strategies adopted by the government, the judiciary and the military in the country.
The game changer event of 9/11 brought various paradigm shifts in the whole politics of the world including Pakistan. Before ‘the event’ Pakistan had been deeply involved in supporting the Mujahedeen in Afghanistan against the Soviet Union. The state used various militant groups as instruments of state policy and allied with conservative and ban outfits religious extremist organizations like the Lashkar-e – Jhangvi and Sipah-Sahaba, to give legitimacy to the state actions. In 2001, US warned Pakistan to join their ‘war on terror’ by declaring Taliban as threat to the world peace. The United States invasion of Afghanistan in 2003 and Pakistan’s support with the war on terror resulted in the pushing Taliban forces into Pakistan’s tribal region where they created an organization Tehrik-e- Taliban Pakistan (TTP) with new bases and sanctuaries.
2 Later these insurgencies were extended to Sawat and Peshawar, in response a military operation was undertaken in 2009 against the Tehrik Taliban Pakistan and other militant organizations to re-establish the authority of the state. Initially both Pakistan and the US were committed to never compromise against the terrorists but later the strategy was changed and Pakistan sought the strategy of 3D i.e. Dialogue, Deterrence and development and started negotiations with the TTP but could not succeed.
Since then the Pakistani army and paramilitary forces have launched several operations. 3 2 Ishtiaq A, “Pakistan and the Fight Against Terrorism”, AFPAK 3 Talat. M, “Pakistan’s Fight against Terrorism”, Defence against Terrorism Review, (2012,Vol. 4:13-30) A long time after the 9/11 attacks Pakistani military initiated operations in Fata and Swat valley against Tehrik e Taliban Pakistan, sympathizers of Afghan Taliban ,as an ally of US in war on terror, as a reaction Tehrik e Taliban Pakistan started terror activities inside Pakistan, worst kind of terrorism faced by Pakistan as a consequence of Red Mosque operation by Gen Musharraf, suicide attacks started just after that, in short Taliban movement in Pakistan get strong all around the country, initially the public response was not so enough power full to initiate a full fledge war or operation against these terrorists. 4 The change in perception came about after the Taliban moved from Fata to settled areas of Pakistan and tried to impose their will, Taliban involvements in suicide attacks on military personnel, attacks on imam bargah’s, destruction of educational institutions, bomb blasts on shrines of Suffi saints, beheadings of opponents and suspected informers, restrictions on the freedom and the movement of women, creation of parallel judicial system, controversial views about girls education, opposing democracy as a system of Kufr, rejection of constitution, involved in sectarian violence and many other unmatchable thoughts and views with the society disgraced TTP and created unpopular support from people of Pakistan. Media too played a key role to build up society to stand against the TTP. The prominent story in media which compelled the society to give support for Armed forces was the incident of MalalaYousafzai. 5 Another paradigm shift was seen after the ‘Army Public School attack’ on 16 December 2014 when the prime minister of Pakistan approved to lift death penalty in terrorism-related cases. After these incidents Pakistani society get up with full emotions and feelings of hatred for TTP and threw their weight into state’s camp to crush the TTP movement in Pakistan.Nawaz Shareef in response to the APS attack said on 24 December in a televised address to the nation, “We have to act fast and whatever is agreed we have to implement it immediately…this agreement is a defining moment for Pakistan and we will eliminate terrorists from this country.” On the same day the Prime Minister announced the 'National Action Plan' (NAP) to deal with terrorism. The plan was prepared in the light of the decisions taken by All Parties Conference by establishing the National Action Committee consisting of the members from all the political parties and decision were taken in the light of the endorsements of the committee. According to study after 9/11 attacked the rate of terrorism increases day by day, like in 2000 only two attacked takes place one in 17 January and another in 5 febvary total 11 people became victim of it. In 2001 most famous attacked on world trade center in united state of America ,thousands of people lost their lives, in 2002 ,14 attacks occurred including on 22 Feb. the American journalist Daniel pearl was kidnapped and murdered in Karachi. In 2003 ,8 terrorist attacks and also they planned the assassination of Perviz Mushraff two time one on the date of 14 December 2003 when a powerful bomb went off minutes 4 Anwar. I,
“ Most Pakistani’s fear extremism, dislike Taliban”,Dawn.com (2014) 5 “Operation has degraded Taliban’s ability to attack”. The Express Tribune (2014)after highly- guarded convoy crossed a bridge in Rawalpindi. And another on 25 December car bomb failed to blast. In 2004, 18 terrorist including assassination of Peviz Musharraf third time on 10 June and on the date of 30 July attempt assassination on prime minister Shaukat Aziz on same year. in 2005,11 attacks takes place. in 2006 16 attacks. In 2007, 54 attacks seen ,attacked on Benazir Butto in liquate Bagh in Rawalpindi, killing up 20 other innocent people. in 2008 ,65 attacks takes place.in2009 Pakistan hitted 50 pulse attacks that killed 180 people and injured 300.in 2010 terrorist attack make in Pakistan have killed 35000 ,5000 of
which are law enforcement personnel and caused material damaged to Pakistani economy totaling US67 billion by IMF and world bank. in 2012 ,80 pulse attacks thousands of people lost their lives .in 2013 in 2014,16 attacks including APS attack on 14 December 2014.in 2015 ,9 attacks takes place. After the APS attacks the government brought various policy shifts in its strategy against terrorism, brought amendments in the constitution and created certain laws. The government National Action Plan, military courts by amending army act, anti terrorism act ATA.
Shabana Fayyaz writes in her article “Responding to terrorism: Pakistan’s anti- terrorism laws”: “Anti-terrorism laws in Pakistan are basically of preventive nature and their successful implementation is directly linked with military, administrative, political and public support and their overall response to this issue.
Terrorism after 9/11 event, it become at extreme level and adopt new pattern of ways. Its not a new phenomenon which emerged in new 21 century. It is an old phenomenon and Pakistan and US used to support mujahidin which now known as terrorism. Unfortunately despite of all effort sacrifices, Pakistan is till now not successful in reduce terrorism in its soil. Large scale of destruction, snatching of innocent people’s lives their properties, making economically instable, as well as destruction of infratruction in Pakistan. They want to destruct Pakistan with respective all angle and to become their own regime of this country.
Terrorism an economically, politically, military became big and serious evil specially Pakistan facing it till now with very bad condition after all efforts. The reason behind it , that is weak governance in Pakistan is most important element ,no proper rule and regulation follow with star of these worse events when it adopt new pattern.
Terrorism covered Pakistan from all four side, no body secure in our country events students are not secure they are also fearful to go schools colleges and universities after APS attacked. Because of weak and bad security. No foreign investors ready to invest ,event Islam is being portrayed as terrorist religion by west media due to terrorist organization working in the name of Islam .terrorist have no sec terrorism, but it doesn’t mean that only Government and law enforcing agencies are responsible for the failure of war on terror. Judiciary equally responsible in making laws , policies and taking decisions against terrorism. After APS attack, some positive measurements taken by and religious .they are against humanity , against education ,against development and prosperity in country ,they just force to follow them, but Islam is the name of independent not force to do some thing or adopt by other by force, Islam is the name of make prosperity and progress in society by new scientific and technology. They want to decline our economy and control by themselves. By confronting all these facts, although are some deficiencies in law regarding government and law enforcing agencies like national act plan.
Anti terrorist act, military courts by amending army act, also star to hang the arrested terrorist instead of make them free as like before APS attacked. And some how seen change in attacks ,it means it can be controlled. So to abolish the root of terrorism have to be unity and good governance .there are many reasons behind it but the one of the major reasons become after study on this topic is the absence of unity and good governance. Hence without have good governance ,unity , without reforms in their rules no one of any state can be protected. It can be reduce if follow new rules and regulation, collectively work against terrorism not only government but also judiciary.
Writer is University Student, Department of IR Faculty of Contemporary Studies National Defense University, Islamabad, hailing from Khaplu- Baltistan – Gilgit-Baltistan –
NOTE: Reference of this research article is available, if needed.
Published in Passu Times English 10th June, 2016